Journal of the Medical Library Association <p>The <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em><em> (JMLA)</em> is the premier journal in health sciences librarianship, dedicated to advancing the practice and research knowledgebase of health sciences librarianship and providing <a href="/ojs/jmla/pages/view/equity" target="_self">equitable opportunities</a> for authors, reviewers, and editorial team members.</p><p><span><a href="">Read issues of the <em>JMLA</em> prior to January 2016 on PMC</a></span></p> en-US (JMLA Editors) (OJS Technical Support) Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Erratum to “Rigor and reproducibility instruction in academic medical libraries,” 2022;110(3):281-93. <p>The PDF version of this article contained incorrect pagination from pages 281-290. The PDF has been updated to the correct pagination. The original article can be found via the DOI <a href=""></a>.</p> Katelyn Arnold Copyright (c) 2023 Katelyn Arnold Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Introducing the Journal of the Medical Library Association’s policy on the use of generative artificial intelligence in submissions <p>With the arrival of ChatGPT, the academic community has expressed concerns about how generative artificial intelligence will be used by students and researchers alike. After consulting policies from other journals and discussing among the editorial team, we have created a policy on the use of AI on submissions to <em>JMLA</em>. This editorial provides a brief background on these concerns and introduces our policy.</p> Jill T. Boruff, AHIP, Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA, Alexander J. Carrol, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Jill Boruff, AHIP, Michelle Kraft, AHIP, FMLA, Alexander J. Carrol, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Continuing to evolve: opportunities to share technology enhancements with health sciences library peers through the Virtual Projects Section <p>Beginning in 2012, the Virtual Projects section of the Journal of the Medical Library Association has provided an opportunity for library leaders and technology experts to share with others how new technologies are being adopted by health sciences libraries. From educational purposes to online tools that enhance library services or access to resources, the Virtual Projects section brings technology use examples to the forefront. Virtual Projects highlighted in this year’s section include new ways to use virtual reality for library instruction, podcasting to share important health care messages with the Latino Community, enhancing findability by using options in a library management system, and developing a research profiling system. After a hiatus due to publishing changes in 2022, 2023 will bring some major changes for the section. The new publication issue for future Virtual Projects sections will be January and the call for submissions and Virtual Projects deadline will now take place in June and July.</p> Emily Hurst, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Emily Hurst, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Resource Review: EndNote 21 desktop version Terri Gotschall Copyright (c) 2023 Terri Gotschall Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Initial efforts to improve medical student information-seeking behavior with embedded library instruction <p><strong>Background</strong>: Medical students must develop self-directed information-seeking skills while they are learning vast amounts of foundational and clinical skills. Students will use different resources for different phases of their training. Information literacy training provided to students will be more impactful when it is embedded into courses or assignments that mimic real-world scenarios. The retention of these skills is also improved by early and frequent instruction sessions, paired with formative feedback from librarian-educators.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: Librarians received student responses to an information literacy question during two cycles of a Grand Rounds activity. Data were analyzed as follows: sources were grouped according to resource type and assessed for quality, and search terms were aggregated and analyzed to determine frequency of use. A librarian-educator presented the compiled data, making suggestions for improving searching and clarifying expectations for how to improve their resource choices for a second Grand Rounds session. Comparing the M2 Grand Rounds case to the M1 case of the same cohort, the frequency of evidence summary and diagnostic tool use increased and the frequency of search engine, textbook/lecture material, and journal article/database use decreased.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: In the real-world application of back-to-back Georgetown University’s Medical Center Grand Rounds exercises, librarian-led instruction on clinical-specific resources appears to be correlated with an improvement in medical students’ searching behavior. This trend supports the argument that introducing students early to librarian-led education on clinical-specific resources, and providing feedback on their searches, improves students’ information-seeking behavior.</p> Angela Barr Copyright (c) 2023 Angela Barr Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Recognizing the value of meta-research and making it easier to find <p>Meta-research is a bourgeoning field studying topics with significant relevance to health sciences librarianship, such as research reproducibility, peer review, and open access. As a discipline that studies research itself and the practices of researchers, meta-research spans disciplines and encompasses a broad spectrum of topics and methods. The breadth of meta-research presents a significant challenge for identifying published meta-research studies. Introducing a subject heading for meta-research in the controlled vocabularies of literature databases has the potential to increase the visibility of meta-research, further advance the field, and expand its impact on research practices. Given the relatively recent designation of meta-research as a field and its expanding use as a term, now is the time to develop appropriate indexing vocabulary. We seek to call attention to the value of meta-research for health sciences librarianship, describe the challenges of identifying meta-research literature with currently available key terms, and highlight the need to establish controlled vocabulary specific to meta-research.</p> Elizabeth Stevens, Gregory Laynor Copyright (c) 2023 Elizabeth Stevens, Gregory Laynor Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Lost in translation: the history of the Ebers Papyrus and Dr. Carl H. von Klein <p>While the Ebers Papyrus is understood to be one of the oldest and most complete contemporaneous perspectives on Ancient Egyptian healing practices, nothing has yet been said about the biography of its first English-language translator, Dr. Carl H. von Klein. A German immigrant and surgeon in the American Midwest, von Klein spent twenty-some years meticulously translating and annotating the Papyrus, but ultimately his manuscript was destroyed. In this paper, we examine the societal- and personal-scale forces that thwarted his efforts to transform our understanding of the history of medicine.</p> Jane Hartsock, Colin Halverson Copyright (c) 2023 Jane Hartsock, Colin Halverson Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Journals accepting case reports <p><strong>Background</strong>: Few resources exist to support finding journals that accept case reports by specialty. In 2016, Katherine Akers compiled a list of 160 journals that accepted case reports, which many librarians continue to use 7 years later. Because journals’ editorial policies and submission guidelines evolve, finding publication venues for case reports poses a dynamic problem, consisting of reviewing a journal’s author guidelines to determine if the journal accepts case report manuscripts. This project aimed to create a more up to date and extensive list of journals that currently accept case reports.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: 1,874 journal titles were downloaded from PubMed. The team reviewed each journal and identified journal titles that accept case reports. Additional inclusion factors included being indexed in MEDLINE, accessible on the internet, and accepting and publishing English language submissions.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The new journal list includes 1,028 journals covering 129 specialties and is available on the Open Science Framework public page.</p> Terri Gotschall, Angela Spencer, Margaret A. Hoogland, Elisa Cortez, Elizabeth Irish Copyright (c) 2023 Terri Gotschall, Angela Spencer, Margaret A. Hoogland, Elisa Cortez, Elizabeth Irish Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Resource Review: ActivePresenter v9 Stephanie M. Swanberg, AHIP Copyright (c) 2023 Stephanie M. Swanberg, AHIP Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Medical libraries and their complicated past: an exploration of the historical connections between medical collections and racial science <p class="AbstractParagraph">For over a millennium, libraries and library workers have advanced the knowledge of human science by building, preserving, and sharing collections and research. Historically, libraries have also aligned their institutional responsibilities to adhere to and support the values and virtues of oppressive and colonial practices. Library history has shown the mistreatments and denials of information access of marginalized groups. The history of libraries in the health and medical sciences reveals how these institutions and their workers have preserved and circulated research studies perpetuating racial science. This commentary highlights how such institutions shape and contribute to racial science in the field of medicine. By exploring the history of medicine through this lens, we examine how such institutions have been complicit in upholding racial science. We explore historical documents and archival collections that have been collected and preserved, particularly records and data of vulnerable groups, to advance the knowledge and understanding of the human body through the ideology of racial science. We argue that health and medical sciences librarians need to critically interrogate the racism in medical libraries and its history and address how health misinformation is common even in scholarly publications.</p> Raymond Pun, Patrice R. Green, Nicollette Davis Copyright (c) 2023 Raymond Pun, Patrice R. Green, Nicollette Davis Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Decoding the Misinformation-Legislation Pipeline: an analysis of Florida Medicaid and the current state of transgender healthcare <p><strong>Background</strong>: The state of evidence-based transgender healthcare in the United States has been put at risk by the spread of misinformation harmful to transgender people. Health science librarians can alleviate the spread of misinformation by identifying and analyzing its flow through systems that affect access to healthcare.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The author developed the theory of the Misinformation - Legislation Pipeline by studying the flow of anti-transgender misinformation from online echo chambers through a peer-reviewed article and into policy enacted to ban medical treatments for transgender people in the state of Florida. The analysis is precluded with a literature review of currently accepted best practices in transgender healthcare, after which, the author analyzes the key report leveraged by Florida’s Department of Health in its ban. A critical analysis of the report is followed by a secondary analysis of the key peer-reviewed article upon which the Florida Medicaid authors relied to make the decision. The paper culminates with a summation of the trajectory of anti-transgender misinformation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Misinformation plays a key role in producing legislation harmful to transgender people. Health science librarians have a role to play in identifying misinformation as it flows through the Misinformation - Legislation Pipeline and enacting key practices to identify, analyze, and oppose the spread of harmful misinformation.</p> Catherine Lockmiller Copyright (c) 2023 Catherine Lockmiller Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 More than just pronouns – gender-neutral and inclusive language in patient education materials: suggestions for patient education librarians <p>Trusted patient education materials are the backbone of an effective consumer health library. However, members of the LGBTQ+ community may not see themselves or their families reflected in many resources due to the gendered and non-inclusive language they are written in. This article outlines some suggestions for concrete actions that patient librarians can take to ensure that their materials are not excluding LGBTQ+ patients.</p> Eleni Philippopoulos Copyright (c) 2023 Eleni Philippopoulos Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Looking back, looking forward <p>The second half of 2022 was a time of much change at the <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em> (<em>JMLA</em>). We hope to lead this journal with transparency, and in this spirit, we wanted to give you an overview of what we have done since we were appointed as coeditors in chief (co-EICs) in June 2022.</p> Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Copyright (c) 2023 Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 122nd Annual Meeting, Medical Library Association, Inc., New Orleans, LA, May 3-6, 2022 <p>The Medical Library Association (MLA) held its 122nd annual meeting May 3-6, 2022, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The meeting was entitled “MLA ’22: Reconnect. Renew. Reflect” and utilized a hybrid model with some events in person, and some virtually.</p> JJ Pionke, Ellen M. Aaronson Copyright (c) 2023 JJ Pionke, Ellen M. Aaronson Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Thank you to the Journal of the Medical Library Association reviewers in 2021 and 2022 <p>We sincerely thank the 214 peer reviewers in 2021 and the 171 peer reviewers in 2022 who helped evaluate and improve the quality of work published in the <em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em> (JMLA).</p> Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Copyright (c) 2023 Jill T. Boruff, Michelle Kraft Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Errata for Issue 110 (3) <p>“Rigor and reproducibility instruction in academic medical libraries,” 2022;110(3):281-93. The PDF and metadata as published contained an incorrect author last name. The correct author name is Tisha Mentnech.</p> <p>“Determining COVID-19’s impact on an academic medical library’s literature search service,”2022;110(3):316-22. The PDF as published contained an incorrect author last name. The correct author name is David Petersen.</p> <p>“In Memoriam: Virginia M. Bowden,” 2022;110(3):381-82. The article was published with incorrect HTML title and author affiliation information. The correct affiliation for Janna C. Lawrence is Director.</p> Katelyn Arnold Copyright (c) 2023 Katelyn Arnold Fri, 24 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Health sciences library workshops in the COVID era: librarian perceptions and decision making <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Objective</strong>:</span> We sought to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted academic health sciences library workshops. We hypothesized that health sciences libraries moved workshops online during the height of the pandemic and that they continued to offer workshops virtually after restrictions were eased. Additionally, we believed that attendance increased.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Methods</strong>:</span> In March 2022, we invited 161 Association of American Health Sciences Libraries members in the US and Canada to participate in a Qualtrics survey about live workshops. Live workshops were defined as synchronous; voluntary; offered to anyone regardless of school affiliation; and not credit-bearing. Three time periods were compared, and a chi square test of association was conducted to evaluate the relationship between time period and workshop format.</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Results</strong>:</span> Seventy-two of 81 respondents offered live workshops. A chi square test of association indicated a significant association between time period and primary delivery method, chi-square (4, N=206) = 136.55, p&lt; .005. Before March 2020, 77% of respondents taught in person. During the height of the pandemic, 91% taught online and 60% noted higher attendance compared to pre-pandemic numbers. During the second half of 2021, 65% of workshops were taught online and 43% of respondents felt that attendance was higher than it was pre-pandemic. Overall workshop satisfaction was unchanged (54%) or improved (44%).</p> <p class="AbstractParagraph"><span class="TitleInline"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span>Most health sciences librarians began offering online workshops following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of respondents were still teaching online in the second half of 2021. Some respondents reported increased attendance with similar levels of satisfaction.</p> Nell Aronoff, Molly K. Maloney, Amy G. Lyons, Elizabeth Stellrecht Copyright (c) 2023 Nell Aronoff, Molly K. Maloney, Amy G. Lyons, Elizabeth Stellrecht Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Tertiary drug information sources for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate tertiary drug information databases in terms of scope, consistency of content, and completeness of COVID-19 drug information.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Five electronic drug information databases: Clinical Pharmacology, Lexi-Drugs, AHFS DI (American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information), eFacts and Comparisons, and Micromedex In-Depth Answers, were evaluated in this cross-sectional evaluation study, with data gathered from October 2021 through February 2022. Two study investigators independently extracted data (parallel extraction) from each resource. Descriptive statistics were primarily used to evaluate scope (i.e., whether the resource addresses use of the medication for treatment or prevention of COVID-19) and completeness of content (i.e., whether full information is provided related to the use of the medication for treatment or prevention of COVID-19) based on a 10-point scale. To analyze consistency among resources for scope, the Fleiss multi-rater kappa was used. To analyze consistency among resources for type of recommendation (i.e., in favor, insufficient evidence, against), a two-way mixed effects intraclass coefficient was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 46 drug monographs, including 3 vaccination monographs, were evaluated. Use of the agents for treatment of COVID-19 was most frequently addressed in Lexi-Drugs (73.9%), followed by eFacts and Comparisons (71.7%), and Micromedex (54.3%). The highest overall median completeness score was held by AHFS DI followed by Micromedex, and Clinical Pharmacology. There was moderate consistency in terms of scope (kappa 0.490, 95% CI 0.399-0.581, p&lt;0.001) and recommendations (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.518, 95% CI 0.385-0.651, p&lt;0.001).</p> Robert D. Beckett, Yashawna Brattain, Judy Truong, Genevieve Engle Copyright (c) 2023 Robert D Beckett, Yashawna Brattain, Judy Truong, Genevieve Engle Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 LGBTQ+ health research guides: a multi-institutional analysis of usage patterns and user information needs <p><strong>Objective</strong>: LGBTQ+ health research guides can strengthen the LGBTQ+ community through connecting people to quality health services and information, and previous studies have recommended that health sciences libraries create and maintain these guides. Little evidence exists, though, on how these guides are used and how well they meet the needs of LGBTQ+ users. Using retrospective data retrieved from multiple LGBTQ+ health research guides, we examined the categories of LGBTQ+ health information most used, as well as how often guides were accessed. Based on these results, we hope to find patterns which can lead to best practices for libraries.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Five North American academic health sciences libraries contributed select usage data from their LGBTQ+ health research guides, covering a three-year period (July 2018-June 2021). Data was analyzed in two ways. Firstly, the 20 most-clicked resources from each guide were categorized through open coding, to assess if certain information resource categories were more popular among guide users, allowing for inference of user needs. A time-series analysis was also conducted for two sites, using the Classical Seasonal Decomposition by Moving Averages method, to provide deeper insights into the data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Open coding data showed consumer health information resources were used more often than other health resource categories. Resources from more locally based organizations and those with provider and services information were heavily used, indicating that users may be looking for information connecting to local health services and providers. The time series analysis allowed the potential positive effect of guide promotion to be showcased in ways that would not have been clear from the raw data.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study shows that people are accessing LGBTQ+ consumer health information through academic library research guides, with a preference for local information. Guide usage appears to be positively driven by outreach within one’s institution and to the greater community. Locating external partners may increase guide impact and provide important links to local resources and services.</p> Gregg A. Stevens, Martin Morris, Robin M. N. Parker, Francisco J. Fajardo, Erica R. Brody, Katie McLean Copyright (c) 2023 Gregg A. Stevens, Martin Morris, Robin M. N. Parker, Francisco J. Fajardo, Erica R. Brody, Katie McLean Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 JUNTOS Radio: a podcast created in collaboration with Spanish-speaking healthcare providers, Juntos Center for Advancing Latino Health, and a medical librarian <p style="margin: 0in 38.0pt 5.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">Spanish-speaking healthcare providers, JUNTOS Center for Advancing Latino Health, and a medical librarian partnered to create a podcast on essential health topics relevant to the Latinx community. The podcasts were recorded in Spanish and included Spanish supplementary consumer health information from credible resources such as MedlinePlus en Espanol. The podcasts covered important topics about COVID-19 such as vaccines, clinical trials, and social distancing. It also includes other relevant topics that are affecting the Latinx community.</span></p> Brenda M. Linares, AHIP, Mariana Ramirez Copyright (c) 2023 Brenda M. Linares, AHIP, Mariana Ramirez Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Promoting rural residents’ participation in clinical trials: clinical trials basics programming and training for rural public librarians <p><strong>Background</strong>: Having diverse representation in clinical trial participation is important. Historically, rural residents have been underrepresented in clinical trial research. Public librarians have an opportunity to promote clinical trial participation among rural residents by offering consumer health information services that help patrons to understand what clinical trials are and how they can find relevant clinical trials.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation</strong>: A consumer health library and a clinical trial center located at a large academic medical center collaborated to provide clinical trial information programming to rural public libraries. The group was awarded a Network of the National Library of Medicine (NNLM) Community Outreach Grant and was able to plan, develop, promote, and implement programs including training workshops, a speaker event, and a book discussion to rural public librarians.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Marketing the programs to rural public libraries was difficult and many barriers were encountered. Though registration and subsequent participation were low, participants expressed interest and gratitude for the programs. For any future programs targeting this population, further strategies will need to be implemented to ensure increased registrations and attendees.</p> Dana L. Ladd, PhD, Jackson C. Wright Copyright (c) 2023 Dana L. Ladd, Jackson C. Wright Mon, 10 Jul 2023 00:00:00 -0400 How do search systems impact systematic searching? A qualitative study <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Systematic reviews and other evidence synthesis projects require systematic search methods. Search systems require several essential attributes to support systematic searching; however, many systems used in evidence synthesis fail to meet one or more of these requirements. I undertook a qualitative study to examine the effects of these limitations on systematic searching and how searchers select information sources for evidence synthesis projects.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Qualitative data were collected from interviews with twelve systematic searchers. Data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: I used thematic analysis to identify two key themes relating to search systems: systems shape search processes, and systematic searching occurs within the information market. Many systems required for systematic reviews, in particular sources of unpublished studies, are not designed for systematic searching. Participants described various workarounds for the limitations they encounter in these systems. Economic factors influence searchers’ selection of sources to search, as well as the degree to which vendors prioritize these users.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Interviews with systematic searchers suggest priorities for improving search systems, and barriers to improvement that must be overcome. Vendors must understand the unique requirements of systematic searching and recognize systematic searchers as a distinct group of users. Better interfaces and improved functionality will result in more efficient evidence synthesis.</p> Andy Hickner Copyright (c) 2023 Andy Hickner Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Mapping the pathways to health sciences librarianship: reflections and future implications from an immersion session <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Many health sciences librarians enter the profession without specific health sciences training. Some LIS programs have health sciences courses or tracks, but health sciences training within an LIS program is only one path to entering health sciences librarianship. To develop a map of pathways into health sciences librarianship, an immersion session at the Medical Library Association conference in 2022 asked health sciences librarians to share how they entered the profession.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The immersion session was structured in three parts: facilitator introductions, small group discussions, and a whole group summary discussion. Guided by questions from the facilitators, small groups discussed what pathways currently exist, how to promote existing pathways, what new pathways should be created, and how to develop and promote pathways that make the profession more equitable, diverse, and inclusive.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Through in-the-moment thematic analysis of the small group discussions, the following emerged as key pathways: library school education; internships and practica; the Library and Information Science (LIS) pipeline; on-the-job training; mentoring; self-teaching/hands-on learning; and continuing education. Themes of equity, diversity, and inclusion arose throughout the session, especially in the concluding whole group discussion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Small group discussions in a conference immersion session showed the value of community building in a profession that has multiple pathways for entrance, highlighting the importance of unearthing hidden knowledge about avenues for exploring and enhancing career pathways. The article seeks to address barriers to entry into the profession and adds to the literature on strengthening the field of health sciences librarianship.</p> Gregory Laynor, Natalie Tagge, Juliana Magro, Megan De Armond, Renée A. Rau, Emily Vardell Copyright (c) 2023 Gregory Laynor, Natalie Tagge, Juliana Magro, Megan De Armond, Renée A. Rau, Emily Vardell Mon, 02 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Virtual Services in the Health Sciences Library: A Handbook <p>Health sciences libraries serving universities and medical facilities have long used technology to provide library services, but COVID-19 presented libraries with unique challenges. Libraries shut their doors and adapted to conducting reference, instruction, and outreach, remotely. For some libraries described in <em>Virtual Services in the Health Sciences Library: a Handbook,</em> those services had been done in the library; for others, the library had considered adding virtual services. For those libraries that have not made the jump, this text presents strategies to which all health sciences libraries would find a useful reference. Given its practical strategies and engaging text, this reviewer finds <em>Virtual Services in the Health Sciences Library: a Handbook</em> to be an inspiring and a highly recommended reference for health sciences libraries.&nbsp;</p> Barbara M. Pope Copyright (c) 2022 Barbara M. Pope Fri, 24 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0400 2022 Janet Doe Lecture, health science libraries in the emerging digital information era: charting the course <p>The great challenge medical library professionals are facing is how we evolve and respond to the emerging digital era. If we successfully understand and adapt to the emerging digital information environment, medical librarians/Health Information Professionals (HIPs) can play an even greater role in the advance in the health care of our nation and its residents. The opportunities and challenges are at the level we successfully responded to in the late 1960’s and the 1970’s under the leadership of the National Library of Medicine with its MEDLARS/Medline programs and Medical Library Assistance Act which enabled medical libraries to enter what I have referred to as <em>The Golden Age of Medical Libraries. </em>In this presentation, I focused on the transition of the health related print Knowledge-Based Information base to the emerging digital health related ecosystem. I review how this transition is being driven by evolving information technology. The development of “data driven health care” built on this emerging information ecosystem is being led by the National Library of Medicine’s 2017-2027 Strategic plan and the Medical Library Association’s programs in support of developing medical librarian/HIP’s training, skills, and services to support their users access and use of this rapidly expanding health information ecosystem. I then present a brief description of the digital health information ecosystem that is just starting to emerge and the emerging new roles and services HIPs and their libraries are developing to support effective institutional access and use.</p> Michael Kronenfeld Copyright (c) 2023 Michael Kronenfeld Fri, 21 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0400